Schema theory (building background & activating schema)

Sentence comprehension - punctuation & other convention cues

Organizational Patterns (list, sequence, comparison, cause/effect)

Expository Text (introductions, heading, summary, questions)


Activate & build schema

Set purpose



Aids - anticipation guides, story previews, semantic mapping, writing (personal connection), creative drama

During Reading

Metacognition (declarative, procedural, & conditional knowledge)

Strategy:  what, how, when (&why)

Monitoring comprehension & repairing


Teacher:  Modeling, think alouds, guiding questions, cloze

Reciprocal teaching (predicting, question generating, summarizing, & clarifying)


Questions:  high-level, application, important

Visual or dramatic representation, Retelling, Application

Comprehension Activities

Discussion (probe for elaboration & text support, avoid constant IRE, encourage student-to-student interaction, building on ideas, using other knowledge)

Semantic Webbing, Story Grammar / Story Map / Story Schema, Written response

Types of Comprehension


Interpretive  = making inferences, connections, mood, cause/effect, author's purpose, drawing conclusions, fig. lang. recognizing main idea (see BR&R p. 232)

Critical = comparing text to standards & drawing conclusions

Text = accuracy, effectiveness, appropriateness, timeliness, fact vs. opinion, propaganda, value judgments

Author = purpose, pov, style/tone, competence

Creative = predicting outcomes, visualizing, solving problems, producing new creations

Effective Questioning


Types:  main idea, detail, vocabulary, sequence, story grammar, inference, evaluation, creative response

QAR (Question Answer Relationship)

Right There, Think & Search, and On My Own

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